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Informed consent was obtained from all the participants before they started the study. None of the other variables were ificant. Moreover, the importance of studying weight-related behaviors and understanding barriers to weight management during the COVID crisis is highlighted by higher BMI being associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation and death from coronavirus Garg et al.
We used linear regression to predict changes in weight management-related behavior, with the following demographic predictor variables: gender, age, ethnicity white vs. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. In the UK, access to weight management and bariatric surgery services has also been impacted by the virus as many outpatient clinics and elective operations were postponed due to National Health Service NHS England guidance to maximise critical care and respiratory support capacity for COVID patients NHS, Likewise, people may have been reluctant to exercise in public because of concerns about potential infection.
All data were collected during 28th Aprilnd May Social lockdown in the UK commenced 23rd March and during the period of data collection, social lockdown restrictions remained in place and included school closures, non-essential travel, meeting members of other households and closure of all non-essential businesses. Furthermore, measures of lockdown physical activity, diet quality and overeating are based on self-report, so will be prone to bias.
All authors conceived the study de. Due to survey length we were not able to study all potential weight management barriers, so there are likely to be other barriers to weight management that may be important during the COVID crisis. Perceived declines in the frequency of weight-gain adult date wu uk behaviors were more likely to occur in some participant sub-groups than others e.
Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. See Table 5. The present research highlights the potential impacts that COVID lockdown has had on a range of weight-related behaviors and barriers among UK adults, as well as identifying groups that may be most in need of support.
In a second step of each model we included interaction terms between BMI and each of the COVID consequences variables to examine whether the effects of these predictor variables on outcomes varied by BMI. We treated BMI as a continuous variable in analyses to minimize the of interaction terms included in models and maximise statistical power. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.
Predictors of perceived weight management behavior change See Table 5 for full.
All rights reserved. Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected.
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Across analyses we found that participant characteristics ed for a relatively small amount of variance in outcome measures. ER and NM carried out data analysis. Sample characteristics are reported in Table 1. See Table 6.
It was also common for participants to report experiencing barriers to physical activity and healthy eating during lockdown e. Eligibility criteria were: aged 18 years or above, fluent in English, current UK resident.
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Questionnaire items examining self-reported changes in weight-related behaviors compared to before lockdown measure perceived rather than actual change. See online supplementary materials for full. Although analyses indicated that these items were associated with validated measurements of current behavior measured during lockdown as would be expected e.
Method 2. Abstract Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. Although some demographic factors predicted greater perceived declines in mental health being female, younger, having an existing psychiatric conditionhigher Adult date wu uk was not associated with perceived changes in mental health.
After providing consent, participants completed demographic measures see Table 1including self-reported weight and height. All authors were involved in writing the paper and had final approval of the submitted manuscript. The sample had a larger proportion of women and participants with a higher education level than the general population Health Survey for England resources, It should also be noted that scores on the WHO well-being measure reported by this sample indicate lower levels of well-being that norm values for the UK Topp et al.
For the 11 weight-related behaviors participants reported on there was considerable variability in perceived change in frequency since lockdown.
Table 1 Sample characteristics. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Multimedia component 1. Participants with higher BMI were ificantly more likely to report experiencing all three barriers.
As the risk of infection may remain high in many developed countries for some time, prevention efforts to minimize weight gain during the COVID crisis may be warranted.
For detailed scoring information of all questionnaire data, see online supplementary materials. Removal of 23 participants who were not eligible e. The impact that the COVID crisis has had on weight-related behaviors, including healthy eating and physical activity is unclear, but may be substantial Pearl, During the pandemic, supply chain disruption and panic buying may have limited access to fresh foods, increasing reliance on unhealthier foods with longer shelf lives Tan et al.
Measures of perceived changes in behavior were consistently associated with actual levels of behavior in the expected directions i. Open in a separate window. These findings suggest that there are likely to be other factors contributing to variability in weight-related behavious as a result of COVID lockdown. Physical activity during lockdown Lower income, being non-white, having a high-risk medical condition, higher BMI, experiencing negative mental health and increased physical health symptoms since lockdown were all independently ificantly associated with lower physical activity levels during lockdown.
MaloneyLucile MartyBethan R. MeadRob Noonanand Charlotte A. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. In addition, we examined physical activity levels, diet quality and problematic overeating during lockdown in order to investigate factors associated with and potentially contributing to reduced levels of physical activity and less healthy eating during the COVID crisis.
Table 5 Predictors of less favourable changes in weight-related behaviors perceived change. We also repeated the analysis examining perceived changes in eating behavior and physical activity items only and were similar i.
On the 23rd March, the UK government introduced formal social lockdown measures to restrict the spread of the virus. The present study findings suggest that social lockdown in the UK may have had a disproportionately large influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI and there is a need to understand the impact that the COVID crisis may have on population level weight gain.
Lower income, being non-white, having a high-risk medical condition, higher BMI, experiencing negative mental health and increased physical health symptoms since lockdown were all independently ificantly associated with lower physical activity levels during lockdown. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published online Oct 7.
There were 3 main clusters relating to difficulties in accessing healthy foodlack of healthy eating motivation and controland lack of social support. Nonetheless, the measures included provide some indication of potential trends and factors associated with weight-related behaviors in the context of the COVID crisis, highlighting the need to monitor weight-related behaviors as the COVID crisis continues. Participants also completed the 5 item WHO Topp et al. We were unable to measure pre-lockdown engagement in weight gain protective behavious and other participant characteristics e.
We adopted the same approach to examine perceived changes in mental health pre vs. As well as being an established risk factor for all-cause mortality Bhaskaran et al. See Table 5 for full. A large of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior e. Because people living with obesity may be disproportionately affected by lockdown measures e. The survey also included attention check questions to identify any participants responding randomly.
3. The aim of the present study was to examine perceived changes before vs. Higher BMI was not ificantly associated with perceived change in mental health, although participants who reported that their mental health had suffered because of lockdown had ificantly lower levels of physical activity and more overeating during lockdown. In a UK study, adults with obesity were more likely to report that they believed that adult date wu uk limited of behaviors typically protective against weight gain e. Sample Eligibility criteria were: aged 18 years or above, fluent in English, current UK resident.
Physical activity, diet quality, overeating and well-being during lockdown Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire IPAQreporting on amount of vigorous e. In line with Robinson et al. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating.
Participants also reported on whether they would normally be accessing weight management services and whether they had ever been diagnosed with a psychiatric condition e. There are limitations to the present research. Sample A total of participants were recruited into the study, from Prolific and recruitment via social media.
Table 6 Predictors of physical activity, diet quality and overeating in lockdown. A total of participants were recruited into the study, from Prolific and recruitment via social media. We used hierarchical regression analysis and in the first step of each model we entered COVID lockdown negative mental health consequences, negative interpersonal consequences and physical health consequences, alongside participant characteristics and BMI continuous.
Because analyses were exploratory we did not conduct a formal power analysis, although we aimed to recruit a minimum of participants from Prolific and to advertise via social media for up to 4 weeks. In a randomized order, participants next completed the questionnaires below.
Our findings tend to support this suggestion and also highlight that adults already of higher BMI may be most at risk of increased weight gain as a result of the COVID crisis.