The CDC even references the phenomenon in several sections of its website. Individuals make choices between the potential social, economic, and emotional costs and benefits of engaging with specific potential partners and take actions to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits of sexual partnering.
Eight participants reported multiple relationships with MSMW, all but one of these women reported illicit substance use. The sample was then stratified into those participants who did and did not mention illicit drug use -- a major factor that emerged as influencing the partnerships. In recent years, this burden has become a major concern in African American communities and a greater focus of intervention efforts. The majority described their partnerships as committed and involving emotional or instrumental support.
Firstwe developed a codebook with 13 broad codes or domains based on the interview guide questions related to the partnerships with MSMW e. All interview recordings were professionally transcribed. Exploring the relationship experiences of HIV-negative and positive female partners of MSMW will elucidate the priorities of these women and the risky and protective characteristics of these partnerships. Five partners did not use substances, and substance use type was not known or reported for another five.
The majority of the relationships with MSMW had lasted more than six months and were considered by the women to have been serious including both engagements, marriages, and cohabitations. Eighty-nine African American women were screened for one of either arm of the study, of whom 27 were determined eligible and 21 interviewed for this arm.
Thirdall 20 transcripts including the 3 used for training were ased and coded separately using the refined codebook; 2 coders each coded 7 transcripts and 1 coder coded 6 transcripts. Subcodes, based on team discussions, were created and used for responses to each of the black bisexual dating domains e. Although socioeconomic status SES was not directly assessed, many participants mentioned during qualitative interviews having experienced financial instability, housing instability, or receiving black bisexual dating assistance.
As applicable, prior relationships with other MSMW were also examined; however, due to poor recall and time constraints, information on the more distal partnerships was sometimes less detailed or complete. This may be acutely true for Black women with male partners who have engaged in same-sex activity. Outreach was conducted concurrently for a second arm of the study on HIV-positive women with unidentified sexual risk.
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Twenty-one partners were known to have used illicit substances or drink heavily. Although 6 relationships involved some exchange of sex for drugs or money, only one was strictly commercial. Promotional materials encouraged calls from women who had ever been in a sexual relationship with a man who they knew or suspected had also been involved with other men. Sexual Network Theory was used in developing our interview questions, and elements of both explanatory models emerged as relevant through analysis of our interviews with African American female partners of MSMW.
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The coders also summarized the transcripts in MS Excel with an individual column representing a set of responses for each of the MSMW partners reported by the participants. The majority 19 of 20 identified as heterosexual on the quantitative survey. Those participants who reported MSMW partners were more likely than those who did not to report both risky and protective factors Voetsch et al. Most of his life, in which he informed me that he had a boyfriend in there, the dominant kind.
All reported recent vaginal sex with a male; 18 also reported oral sex, and 3 also reported anal sex. Three of the participants were HIV positive.
In addition, one woman reported having had sex with dozens of men who she knew or assumed to be MSMW but only provided details on one of these partnerships. We analyzed transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 20 Black women who reported sex with at least one man who had sex with men and women MSMW in the prior 5 years.
Table 1 illustrates details regarding these 31 relationships including how the participants met the men. Additional items included the and black bisexual dating of other sexual relationships the participant had had in her lifetime, her sexual risk history, and her general attitudes regarding infidelity, HIV risk, and condom use. Study participants described partner incarceration as if it was commonplace among men in their networks.
Sexual Network Theory, first used to describe social networks, has been used to describe the influence of partner availability and social factors on partner selection and behaviors within partnerships Laumann et al. Secondwe ensured all coders were familiar with the codebook and applied the codes consistently. Others met the MSMW through shared housing circumstances.
Based on information from the first set of completed interviews, the guide was modified to capture additional, potentially relevant information on the partners. Please see Appendix 1 for the original guide. Choice Theory suggests that personal goals e. We applied Choice and Sexual Network theories to the interpretation. Seven had no history of incarceration; incarceration histories were unknown or unreported for 4. Research on women who are aware of a high-risk male partner may inform HIV prevention. From what I had sensed is that I think he started hit him, or hurt him.
A community advisory board, comprised of local providers and activists, also encouraged referrals, informed outreach approaches and the interview guide.
Finally, they tallied the s of partnerships and MSMW partners denoted with p and study participants denoted with n that applied to each code in order to establish the frequency and range of specific responses within each domain. For example, Ebony, who was married for 14 years to an MSMW responded as follows when asked whether he was ever in prison or jail age 45 :. According to Sexual Network Theory, individuals frequently partner with others who have similar sociodemographics and behavioral characteristics to themselves homophily and engage in sexual behaviors that are influenced by the norms of their social networks Edward O.
One risk-focused study on female partners of MSMW involved students attending historically black colleges. We used two theoretical perspectives to guide our thinking and data analysis.
This process was then repeated twice with different transcripts. Of the 20 eligible participants, 6 were recruited from Craigslist. In addition, participants had to have had anal, vaginal, or oral sex with an MSMW in the prior 5 years regardless of whether or not they were currently involved with that partner. The interviewer used a semi-structured guide to lead participants through the interview while leaving room to discuss other topics.
Eligibility for both arms was determined by screening interested callers over the telephone. A small of participants reported meeting their partner when they bought or sold drugs from or to the men. Throughout the coding process, the coders met to review each transcript, discuss the subcodes and verify their accuracy as they related to each domain all coders in agreement.
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Substance abuse, financial instability, and a desire to remain in intimate partnerships may discourage preventive actions in these women. The Charles R. Potential study participants were recruited throughout Los Angeles through advertisements on Craigslist. To do this, 1 black bisexual dating was coded individually by each of the 3 coders coauthors who then met to review the accuracy of this first round of coding and refine the codes.
When asked, 8 participants reported having exchanged sex for money or drugs; 4 reported incarceration; and 14 reported illicit drug use during their lifetimes. Sexual Network Theory speaks to the social nature of sexual partnerships and the ways in which social forces influence who is most likely to engage in sexual partnerships by constraining partner availability and by discouraging or encouraging particular types of unions and behaviors through the influence of social network members Laumann et al.
However, the substance-using women reported a substantially higher proportion of casual relationships. Data were collected from September to November Although participants were to be matched with an interviewer of the same gender and race, two were interviewed by a Latina female because they had a professional relationship with the African American female interviewer Author: REDACTED. In addition, brief study presentations were conducted with staff of various clinics to encourage patient referrals.
CDC transmission risk for these male partners include those known to be in HIV behavioral risk groups e.
Hence, Black women have been told both by popular media and by public health entities that Black MSMW pose a major threat to their health and, in many cases, have been presented narrow, morally corrupt images of these men. Each quotation was reviewed and any discrepancies were discussed until all coders were in agreement with code definitions and their application. For example, 2 of the 3 participants who met their partners through school did so in their dormitory complex; others did black bisexual dating while in the same drug treatment, drug recovery, or transitional housing facility.
Furthermore, there are 3. Just 1 participant reported meeting her partner through her formal employment. In these processes, they are limited by the resources they have to invest in both findings and in finding out about potential partners, their expectations of the marketplace, and its size and composition. Choice Theory, which stems from economics, has been applied to decision-making regarding choice of sexual partners Laumann et al.
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Substance abuse was a common component of the relationships and very few involved consistent condom use. None met through other common venues for finding partners such as the Internet, church, or social organizations. The 20 participants discussed sexual partnerships with 31 different known MSMW. Six participants were unable to successfully schedule and complete the interview and one participant was dropped because her interview indicated that she did not, if fact, meet the eligibility criteria.
The average of recent male partners was 3.
A also mentioned incarceration disrupting ongoing partnerships or contributing to same-sex behavior among men. Six participants had had biological children with their MSMW partners, some others shared in raising non-biological children. Five reported two, one reported three, and one reported five different MSMW partners.