Children are born into complex family structures ofextendedfamilies, where parents, grandparents and other relatives live closely together. It might be opposite if the author were from Eastern cultural origin: more Western characteristics would then be regarded as remarkable.
Collectivism involves the subordination of individual goals to the goals of a collective. Collectivistic people think passionate love relationships may disrupt the tradition of family-approved and arranged marriage-choices. They presented almost perfect samples, as they were similar in all respects except nationality.
Relationships in individualism are neither obvious nor prearranged. Thus, support or disapproval of the given hypothesis will be founded on the comparison of required profile information in online dating websites. Culture also means a way of life: rituals, traditions, values and symbols that people of a group accept generally without thinking about themand that are passed along by communication and imitation so-called social learning from one generation to the next. They are voluntarily and have to be fostered. Indeed, local cultures, politics, community, Internet use, social shaping of technology, and language influence and shape online communication.
His model ofCultural dimensionsis regarded as one of the most comprehensive works and important studies of cross-cultural analysis. Personal privacy is reduced; social norms and duty as defined by the in-group are over the pursuit of personal pleasure. Valuesform the core of culture. Communication is often described as information exchange and transfer. People in individualistic cultures verbalize and negotiate their individual wants and needs with a strong self-assertion focus.
A committed relationship is regarded as a consequence of romantic love, which is the most important factor for marriage. In the following, the author details only 1 of 6 dimensions, which she regarded as the most relevant for online dating. He distinguishes two different contexts:high context communicationandlow context communication. The relevant countries were deliberately selected as they provide a very broad cultural perspective.
There is no need for specific friendships in collectivism. Most noticeably, he developed the theory of cultural dimensions, which indicates national and regional cultural groups influencing behaviour of societies and organizations. It has to be considered that studies of Western, Westernized or Eastern cultures mostly reach social groups that are modern, urban and affluent.
Dating culture in the united states
As people have to respect the opinions of their relatives, selection of marriage partner is a crucial event for both partners, but also for their families. Regarding intercultural communication, Hall focused on the contextin communications, which describes the information surrounding an event. We shop, socialize, connect, communicate, work and even find our partners online.
This thesis proceeds with cultural fundamentals outlined by presenting different approaches of culture and its influence on communication and perceptions of love and marriage. As this thesis is written from a Western point of view, some chapters about Eastern cultures appear more detailed than the Western equivalent. Culturein its Latin origin meansthe tilling of the soil.
The world is going online and it seems that how we choose to life our lives is more related to opportunities offered by the online world than to the cultural values we are born in and raised with. Personal identity is defined by individual attributes.
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Today, individualism-collectivism is viewed as one of the most important sources of cultural differences in social behaviour. Definition of and susceptibility to love, choice of love partner and progress of a relationship are culturally affected.
As meanings of symbols, heroes and rituals, the values often remain unconscious and can only be inferred from the way people act under different circumstances. Cross-cultural comparisons of website contents indicate that cultural values are reflected in online communication styles.
Between and Hofstede studied a large body of survey data about values of employees at 72 IBM subsidiaries from more than 40 countries in the world. In this thesis the author will demonstrate that culture influences online dating and determining factors for finding a partner online. The conclusion involves important outcomes and provides prospects to further research issues.
And what we learnto value in these cultural environments stays with us for life. The two concepts describe acquisition and processing of information in cultural networks, especially a strong or weak referring context in communication. Each subchapter starts with a short introduction about the country itself and selected cultural characteristics.
They are culturally fundamental convictions acquired early in lives and deal with pairings, such as right versus wrong, decent versus indecent, moral versus immoral, abnormal versus normal, and dirty versus clean.
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Furthermore, use of silence, behaviour, and paraverbal cues articulation, intonation, speed, voice characteristics, and volume imply a message through what is not said. Contrary to Asian cultures, in Western cultures it is an established notion that self- disclosure typically reduces uncertainty about others and increases interpersonal trust. Therefore, the author chose only this cultural dimension to establish her empirical research. But in most other cultures, mate selection and romantic beliefs of love and marriage are different. Everyone carries within himself or herself patterns of thinking, feeling and potential acting.
But when selecting the potential spouse, it is expected to take into the wishes of parents and other family members. Geert Hofstede is a Dutch social psychologist and anthropologist specialized in cultural dating in the united states culture. Therefore, every statistically researched nation could be indicated on a scale of the relevant dimension, and, be comparable with other nations and their cultures; cultural differences were visualized. After a thorough initial research the author chose to compare website contents of online dating services, specifically online dating websites operating the personality-matching system.
It is characterized as a warm feeling of affection and tenderness involving shared values, deep attachment, long-term commitment, and psychological intimacy within the meaning of open and honest talks with a partner about personal thoughts and feelings, which are usually not expressed in other relationships. Romantic relationships often connote necessary seriousness and long-term commitment. Love in its passionate meaning is clearly associated with freedom of choices.
Collectivistic societies, due to its strong kinship networks and extended-family ties, view passionate love as negative. In individualistic cultures, independence, self-realization, individual rights and decision making is more valued. Germany, Scandinavia, and USAinformation is not expected being already acknowledged or recognized without specific verbalism. Any additional approach would have compromised the quality of the outcome of this thesis due to obvious limitation concerning the extent of s.
A cross-cultural comparison within online dating also means having the choice between various points of view: e. The core of this thesis presents the findings of the empirical research by analysing and comparing profile information of different dating websites in relation to culture, indicating cultural similarities and highlighting cultural differences. India and Japan were chosen to present online dating in Eastern cultures. In individualistic countries, children grow up innuclearfamilies consisting of two parents sometimes even only one parent. There are two types of love known as a valid conceptualization:passionate loveandcompanionate love.
In individualistic culturespassionate loveis highly emphasized. Nowadays, it commonly refers to civilizationorrefinement of the mindincluding knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, heroes, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions shared by a group of people in the course of generations, and which distinguishes them from another.
Arranged marriages are rather based on compatibility of the two families i. Mentioning the details could be regarded negatively. Societies vary in their attitude toward love and its importance. The Western culture believes in the importance of love for marriage, which - on first sight - seems to be universally accepted. Yahya R. Kamalipour 1. But states are the only relevant foundation for researching cultural differences, because of detailed different statistics about their population, which are kept by governments and appropriate for cultural research.
In contrast, communal, collectivistic people are more circumspective and discreet in voicing their opinions and feelings concerning interpersonal relationships because of a strong communal orientation focus. Due to traditional social norms, people in collectivistic cultures usually marry through arrangement by the family. Some aspects of culture, which are relevant within this thesis, are hard to generalise for all people within a country, as there are big differences, depending on urbanization, religion, and socio-economic status. Subsequently, an overview of the online dating market and different types of online dating are provided.
They value closeness, intimacy and free individual emotional expression. A survey questioning students from collectivist cultures revealed the following values being particularly important: filial piety obedience to parents, respect for parents, honouring of ancestors, financial support of parentschastity in women, and patriotism. An individual needs to consider the obligations to the parents and family.
His study is based on the concept of national cultures, which does not focus on states as legal and political delimitation, but as nations. Acknowledgement of the information is implicitly expected. Thesecultural dimensions correlate ificantly with demographical, economical and geographical indicators national culture.
Love distinguishes in its connotations in many cultures. After describing the methodology of empirical research, the actual subject of this study, online dating websites in USA, Germany, India and Japan, is presented in according subchapters.