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Any specimens collected from Japanese waters should be destroyed.

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The first recorded introduction of the species in the natural waters of Japan was in Matsuzawa and Senou ; Senou and Hayashi The origin of all Japanese populations of the species is the 18 individuals donated from the Shedd Aquarium Mississippi River population by the Chicago mayor of October based on the analyses of mtDNA of the Japanese populations: Kawamura et al. Here, we detail the first apparent introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus in Japan since the IASA was adopted.

Figure 1.

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From a bioethical viewpoint, several groups particularly bass-fishing fans do not support such killings e. On 14 Junethe second author ATan undergraduate student of the Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, tweeted a comment along with two images on a social networking service, Twitter, via the internet Fig. It stated that he had identified Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from a public outdoor swimming pool and was obviously surprised that people could be so irresponsible as to release an invasive species.

Figure 3. Community awareness of this issue needs to be improved, and widespread reporting of cases such as this one will help. The invasion of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus frequently causes population decline of aquatic insects sometimes including threatened species. That is, the breeding, cultivation, storage in either natural or artificial conditionstransportation, transfer, delivery, importing and releasing from an already established place to anywhere else including artificial habitats, planting and dispersing to outdoors of IAS are strictly prohibited.

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A portion of gut components of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus collected from the outdoor pool of Chigasaki Park, Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, on 14 June Dragonfly nymphs, Sympetrum sp. Following this, on 19 Augustthe first arrestee under the IASA, a black bass fishing fan who had transferred two live specimens of Micropterus salmoideswas reported by several mass media outlets such as Jiji Press, The Asahi Shimbun, and Nara Newspaper e.

Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science. Although molecular analyses Takada et al. Corresponding author: Yusuke Miyazaki pj.

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Open in a separate window. The species was then introduced widely across Japan for the purposes of commercial fisheries and ceremonies Nakai Since the s, this species has been often released together with Micropterus salmoides because several columns in Japanese recreational fishing magazines encouraged the widespread and combined introductions of the two species Nakai ; Matsuzawa and Senou Both Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus had spread to all Japanese prefectures by Kiriu ; Hayashi ; Maruyama ; Nakai However, the former two examples of illegal introductions were of Micropterus salmoides and, despite the circumstantial evidence of the illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirusthis illegal activity has not been ly reported from Japanese waters.

Keywords: Mature local women sergievka, Centrarchidaeenvironmental education, Invasive Alien Species Act, recreational fishing, tweet, voucher. Received Dec 22; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. That is, it is an exotic non-native species in Japan.

Figure 4. Figure 5. More than 10 years have passed since the IASA was enacted, and the illegal introductions of Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus have possibly occurred mostly via the younger generation who are not aware of the law.

Therefore, they are sometimes used for environmental education activities, utilizing them as a biotope. ZooKeys — National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. The first author YM saw the tweet, and contacted AT with the idea of publishing the information as a scientific report. Specimens from Japan have been comfirmed by mtDNA analyses to have originated from Chinese populations Komiyama et al.

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The spread and resultant establishment of invasive non-native species is one of the most critical contributing factors to biodiversity decline Puth and Post ; Blackburn et al. However, they are required only because of the irresponsible actions of people who release invasive species from controlled environments such as aquaria to nature.

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Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 23 : 11— Fish Genetics and Breeding Science 33 : 93— Molecular Ecology 19 : — Gene : 5— Environmental Systems Research 26 : — Koseisha-koseikaku, Tokyo, 99— Management of Biological Invasions 6 : — Journal of Coastal Research 31 : — Biodiversity and Conservation 23 : — It has been pointed out that they probably contribute to the wider distribution of invasive species such as those discussed here e. Discussion Inthe public outdoor pool where the IAS and goldfish specimens were found operated between 12 July and 7 September; this suggests that Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus and Carassius auratus were introduced sometime between 8 September and 14 June Acknowledgements We thank S.

Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26 : — In: Nakabo T. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79 : — Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, pp. In addition, we also deposited two specimens and photographs of the goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus,which were collected and recorded along with the Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus specimens Fig.

The goldfish specimens had the following characters compared with Japanese Carassius spp. Figure 2.

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The pool has been isolated from natural waters since its construction Fig. Additionally, the public museum catalogs and stores fish images as well as specimens Miyazaki et al. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. A tweet including two fish images posted by AT on 14 June The image on the left shows two adults of Lepomis macrochirus macrochiruswhile the one mature local women sergievka the right shows juveniles of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus and two young of Carassius auratus however, the specimens in the latter image are not able to be identified even to family level from the image alone.

Introduction Rapid biodiversity decline is a serious problem requiring a global response. An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History.

The species was apparently illegally released into an irrigation pond in Ichinoseki City, Iwate Prefecture, during October —May Miyazaki The second report also recorded the introduction of the same species in the same prefecture. After the donation, they were introduced to four man-made lakes in Miyazaki, Kochi, and Tokushima Prefectures during — ahead of the ceremonial introductions by the Japanese prince in April to Lake Ippeki, Shizuoka Prefecture.

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Rapid biodiversity decline is a serious problem requiring a global response. However, based on the IASA, keeping Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus in a home aquarium is illegal, and of course its release is also strictly prohibited. The voucher specimens and photographs of Carassius auratus collected from the outdoor pool of Chigasaki Park, Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, on 14 June We note, in passing, that Carassius auratus is native to China and the Korean Peninsula but not the Japanese archipelago Kalous et al.

Two specimens of Carassius auratusincluding an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Web data mining has been rapidly developing over recent years, and its potential continues to expand Liu This report shows an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science, as similarly shown by Miyazaki et al.

We thank S. We are sincerely grateful to G. Yearsley Ellipsis Editing for his careful review and valuable comments. In fact, AT found dragonfly larvae or juveniles in the gut components of individuals of the invasive fish species collected from the pool see Fig. The discovery of Carassius mature local women sergievka at the same locality and date as the IAS, suggests that the fishes might have originated from an aquarium fish release from a local shop or an aquarist who no longer wanted them.

We also identified some of the gut contents of an adult Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus as dragonfly nymphs of the genus Sympetrum Fig. This identification follows Ishida and is based on the following characters: laterally long and inverted trapezoid head, large and prominent compound eyes, and presence of lateral spines in abdominal segments 8—9. Miyazaki Y, Teramura A, Senou H Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, in Japan based on Twitter information.

I cannot believe the foolishness of the person who introduced these fish into the pool. Based on the above voucher specimen and photographs, we identified the specimens as the invasive fish species, Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Scott and Crossman ; Ross et al. This work was partly supported by the Grant-in-Aid for scientific research from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science no.

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The present report is a case in point, where the pool was being cleaned and its organisms observed. Without such releases, the killings would be unnecessary. Inthe public outdoor pool where the IAS and goldfish specimens were found operated between 12 July and 7 September; this suggests that Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus and Carassius auratus were introduced sometime between 8 September and 14 June This report is the first circumstantial evidence of the illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus in Japan based on the IASA after it was enacted on 1 June Generally, outdoor swimming pools that are not in operation during autumn and spring usually function as spawning and nursery habitats for native aquatic insects such as dragonflies and diving beetles e.

In adults photograph : mouth small; posterior end of maxilla not reaching anterior margin of eye; posterior part of opercle with flap; deep body; dorsal, pelvic and anal fins with spines.