Although the variables were not normally distributed, as can be seen using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the use of parametric tests was supported by the central limit theorem According to this theorem, when the size of both samples is greater than 30, the distribution is close to normal distribution. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand which factors influence the differences and similarities of dating violence.
It should be underlined that the adolescents who had been dating for a longer time displayed the identified behaviors. The answers to the second questionnaire were dichotomous yes, no and assessed three forms of violence: Psychological Blackmail behaviors; Negative comments about personal image; Threatening postures and gestures; Stalking behaviors at school; Invasion of privacy; Judging, correcting and criticizing; Yelling or sex dating portugal ma to instill fear; Insulting, or making defamatory or humiliating statements to "hurt" ; Physical Pulling hair; Slapping; Choking; Throwing objects; Kicking or head banging; Shoving; Preventing contact with other peopleand Sexual Forcing sexual actions against consent; Pressure for unwanted sexual activity; Attempt of physical contact with sexual connotation.
Table 2 Dating violence victimization or perpetration behaviors reported by the adolescents according to gender. Many studies 1819 indicate the symmetry of violence between partners, i. In a similar study, a high percentage of individuals of both genders reported having been touched sexually without consent The rates of perpetrated sexual abuse, particularly regarding the issue of forcing the partner to have sexual intercourse, were lower among girls 1.
It should be underlined that that this study was foreseen in the community outreach project N amor o Im perfeito and that it was developed with the authorization of the Ministry of Education of Portugal and the directing boards of each school participating in the study, which were part of the health education and sex education program. There are currently other consensuses regarding the perception that adolescence is a developmental stage which allows for the investment in preventive efforts 6.
The prevalence of all of the behaviors mentioned above was higher in older adolescents. The of the test did not indicate the need to change the questionnaires.
Only The data collection tool was a self-administered questionnaire composed of two groups of questions: the first group was on sociodemographic data age, gender and education and on the dating relationship length of dating relationship and condition of having been a victim or not of dating violence ; the second group included 18 questions on the behaviors of victimization sex dating portugal ma perpetration of violence in intimate relationships. The length of dating relationship correlates with the perpetration and victimization among females, and with the condition of being a perpetrator among males.
On the other hand, male adolescents who had been dating for a longer time reported the following victimization behaviors: "Negative comments about personal image"; "Stalking at school"; "Invasion of privacy"; "Slapping"; "Throwing objects at another person"; "Kicking or head-banging"; "Pushing"; "Insulting, or making defamatory or humiliating statements to hurt " and "Pressure for unwanted sexual activity". The average response time was 10 minutes. The prevalence rates reported in the literature 15 - 17 are ificant and diverse worldwide, as a result of the adoption of different notions of violence, reflected in the instruments used, and also of different definitions of sample and methodological strategies of analysis.
Therefore, it is essential to conduct additional studies to identify which factors influence the differences and similarities of this event, so as to adapt the interventions aiming at the prevention of the victimization of dating violence among adolescents. Among males, the increase in length of dating relationship was accompanied by an increase in the percentage of perpetration behaviors.
This is a cross-sectional study of epidemiological nature which is part of a broader study on dating violence. This study complied with the ethical and legal requirements to safeguard the anonymity of the subjects involved. Among females, we observed that the percentage of sex dating portugal ma and perpetration behaviors increased with the increase in age and length of dating relationship.
Although there is a similarity between the behaviors adopted by both male and female adolescents, the development of the victimization pattern of dating violence may be different for both genders. In Portugal, the awareness about the severity and magnitude of the problem of dating violence increased from the beginning of the s 3which can be seen in the publication of several studies 3 - 6 that have contributed to the characterization and discussion of the phenomenon from the perspective of its prevention.
Another limitation of this study is the lack of the analysis of the frequency and severity of dating violence incidents, as well as the damage caused by them. Maria dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues Dixe 3. Ensuring that adolescents and young women may enjoy violence-free relationships is an important investment in their future In light of the above, the purpose of this study was to analyze dating violence among adolescents of public schools in four districts of Portugal.
Leiria - Coimbra, Portugal. Males were the greatest perpetrators and victims of psychological violence. Epidemiological cross-sectional study. In the final phase of this study, we performed regression and correlation analyzes to the data on the percentage of adolescents who were victims or perpetrators of dating violence, according to the length of dating relationship and age by gender of the adolescents Table 5. Both genders used physical violence. Adolescents who are victims of dating violence in middle school are at greater risk for victimization during higher education According to the World Health Organization, dating violence refers to any "behavior in an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm, including acts of physical aggression, forced intercourse, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors" This type of violence starts in adolescence and continues throughout adult life, and often starts in dating relationships and extends to marriage or cohabitation.
These emphasize that the occurrence of this phenomenon is similar between genders. The obtained corroborate those obtained in a study on the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence among adolescents in dating relationships, which detected a ificant association between the duration of the affective relationship and the incidence of psychological violence, as well as an increase of 5.
Sample: 1, male and female students, aged years, enrolled in Portuguese secondary sex dating portugal ma.
Infidelity in dating relationships: gender-specific correlates of face-to-face and online extradyadic involvement
The central hypothesis is that the length of dating relationships and the age of the adolescents influence the violent behavior in the relationship between young people. The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of dating violence between adolescents and discuss the association between the violent behaviors and the following variables: age, gender and length of dating relationship.
In the last two decades, many countries and international institutions that encourage research have given priority to the study of adolescent health, due to the observation that the formation of the lifestyle of adolescents is crucial not only for them but also for the future generations 7. Violence in the affective-loving relationships of adolescents shows patterns of mutual physical and psychological aggression between partners, revealing that, to break this relational dynamics, it is necessary to intervene in the couple, rather than only in one of the members This study found that male adolescents were the greatest perpetrators of psychological violence, expressed mainly by controlling behaviors, such as "Preventing contact with other people", "Stalking at school" and "Yelling or threatening to instill fear".
It should be underlined that investigating the different manifestations of dating violence, which is becoming more common among the young sex dating portugal ma, is a way of subsidizing intervention work with a view to improving the affective-sexual experiences of adolescents and preventing violence between intimate partners. Dating violence is a pandemic which affects primarily women and permeates all ethnic groups, cultures, socioeconomic or educational levels, and has historical and cultural roots The inclusion of adolescents in health professionals' actions with a view to planning the prevention and intervention in dating violence is an additional step to modify the current scenario 2.
Studies of this nature are essential to characterize the severity of the problem and raise awareness on its potential consequences throughout the lifecycle of the individual.
Violence in intimate relationships: a comparison between married and dating couples
Experiencing violence in a dating relationship in adolescence can be seen as a continuum that begins with the abuse suffered by the adolescents still in childhood within sex dating portugal ma families of origin, and is perpetuated in the families that they will build in adulthood 9.
It is known that dating violence has negative consequences for the physical and emotional health of adolescents, and is a risk factor for violence in adult relationships 23 Taking into this dynamics, in which there is often a mixture of love and violence in adolescence, means preventing future intimate partner violence in adulthood, when the learnt relationship patterns are established and can bring about serious consequences for the couple and their children Further studies are needed to determine if the of this study are similar in adolescents of other age groups.
The knowledge about violence acquired in recent years has brought to light one of the most important challenges to public health of the 21 st century, which has motivated the study of various types and forms of this phenomenon. The population was composed of 4, female and male students aged between 14 and 19 years who attended secondary schools from the central region of mainland Portugal, more specifically 54 schools of the districts of Aveiro, Coimbra, Leiria and Viseu, in and The non-probability purposive sample was composed of 1, adolescents.
Before the study was conducted, the questionnaires were assessed by six experts in the area of dating violence, and subjected sex dating portugal ma a preliminary test with students who were not part of the sample. The prevalence of dating violence was lower than in other studies found in the literature.
Female adolescents who had been dating for a longer time mentioned the following victimization behaviors: "Blackmail behaviors"; "Negative comments about personal image"; "Threatening posture and gestures" and "Judging, correcting and criticizing". Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz; Coimbra:p. In the dimension of psychological violence, there is a ificant difference between genders in terms of relational violence, with the perpetration and victimization rates being higher among males In relation to sexual violence, this study found the prevalence of the male gender as victim For these same behaviors, female students prevailed in the condition of perpetrators 6.
A study conducted with 15, American students from high schools revealed that 8. In relation to the perpetration behaviors according to the gender of adolescents, nine out of the 18 behaviors differed ificantly according to the length of dating relationship among females; among males, the difference was ificant in 17 behaviors. The analysis of the 18 victimization behaviors by gender according to the length of dating relationship Table 4 revealed ificant differences in four of them among females and in nine of them among males.
It should be underlined that all studies converge on the importance of research on violence in this phase of the life-cycle in which the first affective-sexual relationships are established and the risk of experiences of victimization or perpetration of violence emerges 9.
Prevalence and characteristics of dating violence among school-aged adolescents in Portugal.
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This study on the scenario of dating violence among adolescents found a prevalence of 5. Coimbra, Portugal. A similar pattern of violence was found between genders in some behaviors, such as: hair pulling, choking, throwing objects, slapping, kicking, head-banging, and pushing. Despite its great social relevance, dating violence among adolescents started to be explored only recently in the scientific literature, thus data on the prevalence of dating violence and its associated factors in adolescents and young women are scarce 1. Recife - PE, Brazil. Table 3 Differences between the victimization and perpetration behaviors according to the age and gender of the adolescents.
Maria Aparecida Beserra 1.
Data were collected through questionnaires including sociodemographic data and data on dating violence victimization and perpetration behaviors. Table 5 Correlation coefficient to the variables victimization and perpetration behaviors according to the length of dating relationship, age and gender of the adolescents. In relation to the condition of having been a victim, there was a prevalence of females in ten of the 18 behaviors assessed, such as: "Blackmail behaviors" Subsequently, we assessed the association between the violent behaviors and the condition of being a victim or perpetrator according to gender, age and length of dating relationship of the sampled adolescents Tables 3 and 4.
This form of violence is mainly perpetrated by men against women, but it can also be perpetrated by women against men and in same-sex intimate relationships. The sex dating portugal ma safeguarded the right of adolescents and their parents or legal guardians to the Free and Informed Consent Form. Both male and female adolescents reported the use of physical violence, including "Hair pulling", "Slapping", "Chocking", "Throwing objects at another person", "Kicking and head-banging", and "Pushing".
The analysis of the association between violence and the age of the adolescent and the length of dating relationship showed that the older the adolescents and the longer the length of dating relationship, the higher the of violent victimization and perpetration behaviors among females, whereas among males only the percentage of perpetration behaviors increased according to the length of dating relationship.
The main objectives of the recent international studies that attach great importance to the topic are: to improve the affective-sexual experiences between young people and prevent conjugal violence 2.
Due to the large amount of data in the table, only the p -value, rather than the chi-square, was shown, which is essential to assess if the differences are statistically ificant. To identify the prevalence of dating violence among adolescents and discuss the association between the violent behaviors and the variables: age, gender and length of dating relationship.
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To assess the association between the variables "behaviors of victimization and perpetration of violence" and the students' gender, we used the chi-square test two nominal variables. Of the total of 1, adolescents who participated in the study, The mean age was Table 1 Distribution of students according to gender, age, length of dating relationship and condition of having been a victim or not of dating violence. The above-mentioned behaviors were more frequent in older adolescents. To assess the association between the variables "behaviors of victimization and perpetration of violence" by gender and the variables age and length of dating relationship, we used the Student's t -test and Pearson's correlation.
Adolescence is a phase of discovery, during which most individuals start dating and exploring their sexuality; however, the first romantic experiences of many adolescents involve sexual coercion A recent study on youth risk behavior revealed that 7. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1.